Laser Doppler Monitor


Advanced, laser Doppler blood flow and temperature monitor

  • It goes without saying that the company's imaging technology itself is superb!

    Gourav Banerjee
    Leeds Beckett University

  • We have found Moor equipment to be extremely dependable and innovative.

    Dean L. Kellogg, Jr., MD, Ph.D
    University of Texas Health Science Center

  • In a nutshell, moorFLPI-2 is the most user-friendly system for studying cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents.

    Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan, MD, PhD
    Emory University School of Medicine

  • Laser Doppler Imager is a standard accurate method we now use in our cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion in our laboratory.

    Momoh A. Yakubu, PhD
    Texas Southern University

  • Moor Instruments have consistently provided excellent help and support for my research.

    Kim Gooding, PhD
    University of Exeter Medical School

  • We can't recommend Moor instruments highly enough. The technology is at the cutting edge and the support second to none.

    Paul Sumners, PhD
    London South Bank University

  • I expect to be using Moor Instrument’s technology for many years to come!

    Faisel Khan, PhD
    Ninewells Hospital & Medical School

  • I cannot rate the company or the staff highly enough.

    Jim House, PhD
    University of Portsmouth

The moorVMS-LDF laser Doppler monitor for blood flow and temperature monitoring is a high performance, medical grade module for clinic or laboratory. Use of DSP technology brings you a portable, lightweight module featuring uncompromised specification, quality and reliability at a breakthrough price.

For more demanding research applications, moorVMS-PC supports simultaneous protocol control of pressure cuff, iontophoresis and skin heating modules for reproducible blood flow provocation as well data acquisition. This advanced software also offers standard and custom reports according to your protocol.

The moorVMS-LDF features;

  • Single and dual channel laser Doppler monitoring options.
  • Multi-channel: combine modules for a multichannel system with software support for your ideal configuration. Stacking case design offers a compact footprint for multi-channel users.
  • ‘MemoryChip’ probes: for a wide range of applications. Calibration constants are stored within the probe itself with timed re-calibration reminders. Inbuilt temperature measurement for skin probes.
  • Easy viewing: high contrast, ice white, backlit LCD display.
  • Advanced Windows™ compatible moorVMS-PC software: with extensive analytical features and automatic report generation. Automatic analysis and reporting.
  • Easily connectable: analogue output (0-5V, BNC) and digital (USB) real time data transfer included as standard for connection to data acquisition systems.
  • Medical grade design: for both clinical and research applications.
  • Multilingual training DVD: for continual reference.
  • Reliability assured: industry leading 5 year manufacturers warranty.

Please contact us to discuss your specific application requirements with a Moor product specialist. You are most welcome to see the system in action and evaluate it for yourself at your own facility.

The following products are AVAILABLE TO BUY ONLINE and work with the moorVMS-LDF

This section lists the more common questions our customers have with regards to the moorVMS-LDF. If you have a question you would like answered that does not appear below then please email us. We are happy to help!

Q. Is the quality of the measurement from moorVMS-LDF different to your other models?
A. All our products are designed and built for human clinical/ medical use including the moorVMS-LDF. There are absolutely no compromises in either the high quality of the measurement or the specification of this product. Use of the latest DSP technology allows us to offer this system at a truly breakthrough price.

Q. How is data transferred from the moorVMS-LDF system?
A. Unlike the DRT4 the moorVMS-LDF does not have an internal data memory so you will need to connect the system to a PC, chart recorder or data acquisition system to permanently record the trace. Every moorVMS-LDF will connect to your PC running moorVMS-PC software via the USB port. You can connect numerous moorVMS-LDF monitors to create your multi-channel configuration. Convenient BNC connections are also provided on the rear panel to link straight to your chart recorder or data acquisition system (0 to 5 Volts fully scalable).

Q. How many sites can I measure from simultaneously with the moorVMS-LDF?
A. The moorVMS-LDF offers real flexibility to create multi channel configurations. Monitors can be added to any USB port on your PC and if you have used all your USB port, just use a USB hub to add more. Our PC software will support it.

Q. How often should the probes be calibrated?
A. We have some customers who calibrate daily and others less regularly. The important thing to bear in mind is that the room temperature should be close to the same each time you calibrate. There is a risk of 'over calibration' - excessive calibration throughout the day - which can be counterproductive if there are large temperature swings. This can result in changes in the Brownian motion of the polystyrene microspheres. We would normally recommend to check calibration at least monthly during the course of a scientific investigation. Calibration is also a good indicator of probe condition. A damaged probe will not calibrate!

Q. How can I use moorVMS-LDF with other protocol modules?
A. moorVMS-LDF in conjunction with moorVMS-PC offers the most flexible solution available to integrate your selection of monitor(s), iontophoresis (MIC2), skin heating (moorVMS-HEAT) and Pressure cuff control (moorVMS-PRES). The software acts as a hub to link all the modules together and to streamline automatic protocol control and analysis.

Q. What are MemoryChip probes?
A. MemoryChip probes store their individual calibration information within the connector itself. When you change over probes, or use on different monitors, the correct calibration data is always applied automatically.

Q. Should the skin be cleaned before measurements?
A. Yes - we recommend using an alcohol wipe. Dead, flaky skin can be removed by gentle stripping with sticky tape. This should be done at least 20 minutes before measurements to allow any stimulus effect to subside.

There are numerous references where our laser Doppler monitors are cited. The list below is a small selection. Please contact us for reference lists on your chosen subject.

Alawieh, A., Wang, W., Narang, A., and Tomlinson, S., 2016.
Thromboembolic Model of Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Mice.
Methods Mol Biol. 1462, pp357-72.

Dang, J., Mitkari, B., Kipp, M., and Beyer, C., (2011).
Gonadal steroids prevent cell damage and stimulate behavioral recovery after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male and female rats.
Brain, behavior, and immunity, 25(4), pp.715–26.

Van Duijnhoven, N. T. L., Janssen, T. W. J., Green, D. J., Minson, C. T., Hopman, M. T. E., and Thijssen, D. H. J., (2009).
Effect of functional electrostimulation on impaired skin vasodilator responses to local heating in spinal cord injury.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 106(4), pp.1065–71.

Gardiner, H. M., Barlas, A., Matsui, H., Diemert, A., Taylor, M. J. O., Preece, J., Gordon, F., Greenwald, S. E., and Hecher, K., (2010).
Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 3(3) (2012) 182–189.

Heimhalt-El Hamriti, M., Schreiver, C., Noerenberg, A., Scheffler, J., Jacoby, U., Haffner, D., and Fischer, D.C., (2013).
Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovascular diabetology, 12(1), p.115.

Herzog, R., Zendedel, A., Lammerding L., Beyer, C., and Slowik, A., (2016).
Impact of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on inflammatory and apoptotic microRNA expression after ischemia in a rat model.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., S0960-0760(16), pp30332-6.

Høyer, C., (2013).
Diagnostic accuracy of laser Doppler flowmetry versus strain gauge plethysmography for segmental pressure measurement.

Høyer, C., Sandermann, J., and Paludan, J., (2013).
Diagnostic accuracy of laser Doppler flowmetry versus strain gauge plethysmography for segmental pressure measurement.
Journal of vascular

Jin, K., Xie, L., Sun, F., Mao, X., and Greenberg, D., (2011).
Corpus Callosum and Experimental Stroke Studies in Callosotomized Rats and Acallosal Mice.
stroke, 42(9), pp.2584–2588.

Klonizakis, M., Alkhatib, A., Middleton, G., and Smith, M., (2013).
Mediterranean diet-and exercise-induced improvement in age-dependent vascular activity.
Clinical Science, pp.579–587.

Liu, H., Kohl-Bareis, M., and Huang, X.,(2011).
Design of a tissue oxygenation monitor and verification on human skin
N. Ramanujam & J. Popp, eds. , 8087(0), p.80871Y–80871Y–10.

Liu, L., Cui, J., Song, C .J., Bian, J.S., Sparatore, A., Soldato, P . Del, Wang, X.Y., and Yan , C. D., (2012).
H(2)S-releasing aspirin protects against aspirin-induced gastric injury via reducing oxidative stress.
PloS one, 7(9), p.e46301.

Petersen, L. J., Zacho, H. D., Lyngholm, A. M , and Arendt-Nielsen, L., (2010).
Tissue viability imaging for assessment of pharmacologically induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction in human skin.
Microvascular research, 80(3), pp.499–504.

Petrofsky, J., Alshammari, F., Khowailed, I. A., Rodrigues, S., Potnis, P., Akerkar, S., Shah, J., Chung, G., and Save, R., (2013).
The effect of acute administration of vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians.
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 19, pp.641–7.

Phillips, J. P., Cibert-Goton, V., Langford, R. M., and Shortland, P. J., (2013).
Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements.
Journal of biomedical optics, 18(3), p.037005.

Ogawa, Y., Kamijo. Y., Ikegawa, S., Masuki, S., and Nose, H., (2016).
Effects of postural change from supine to head-up tilt on the skin sympathetic nerve activity component synchronised with the cardiac cycle in warmed men.
J Physiol., Nov 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Roehl, A. B., Zoremba, N., Kipp, M., Schiefer, J., Goetzenich, A., Bleilevens, C., Kuehn-Velten, N., Tolba, R., Rossaint, R., and Hein, M., (2012).
The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during initial recovery from global transient ischaemia/hypoxia.
BMC neurology, 12, p.81.

Sönmez, T. T., Al-Sawaf, O., Brandacher, G., Kanzler, I., Tuchscheerer, N., Tohidnezhad, M., Kanatas, A., Knobe, M., Fragoulis, A., Tolba, R., Mitchell, D., Pufe, T., Wruck, C . J., Hölzle, F., and Liehn, E. A., (2013).
A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.
PloS one, 8(6), p.e66498.

Sørensen, H., Rasmussen, P., Siebenmann, C., Zaar, M., Hvidtfeldt, M., Ogoh, S., Sato, Kohei, Kohl-Bareis, M., Secher, N.H., Lundby, C., (2015).
Extra-cerebral oxygenation influence on near-infrared-spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation in healthy volunteers: a comparison between INVOS-4100 and NIRO-200NX.
Clinical physiology and functional imaging, 35(3), pp177-184.

Sørensen, H., Rasmussen, P., Sato, K., Persson, S., Olesen, N.D., Nielsen, H.B., Olsen, N.V., Ogoh, S., Secher, Niels H., (2014).
External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration.
British journal of anaesthesia, 113, pp452-8.

Sørensen, H., Sc, M., Secher, N. H., Sc, D. M , Siebenmann, C., Rasmussen, P., and Ph, D., (2012).
Cutaneous Vasoconstriction Affects Near-infrared Spectroscopy Determined Cerebral Oxygen Saturation during Administration of Norepinephrine.
American Society of Anesthesiologists., 117(2), pp.263 – 270.

Yagi, S., Doorschodt, B. M., Afify, M., Klinge, U., Kobayashi, E., Uemoto, S., and Tolba, R. H., (2011).
Improved preservation and microcirculation with POLYSOL after partial liver transplantation in rats.
The Journal of surgical research, 167(2), pp.e375–83.

Moor Instruments are committed to product development. We reserve the right to change the specifications below without notice.


Laser Safety Classification
Class 1 per IEC 60825-1:2014
Class 1 per 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11
Output power 2.5mW max.
Wavelength 785nm ± 10nm
Angular spread of laser light from probe tip 26°
All specifications include cumulative measured uncertainties and expected increases in values after manufacture.


Accuracy: ± 10%, relative to Moor Instruments ‘standard’ moorVMS-LDF
Precision: ± 3% of measurement value
Range: 0-1000 PU

Accuracy: ± 10%
Precision: ± 5% of measurement value
Range: 0-1000AU

Accuracy: ± 10%
Precision: ± 3%
Range: 0-1000AU


Range 5-50°C
Resolution 0.1°C, accuracy ± 0.3°C


Bandwidth: high pass 20Hz
Low pass selectable 3KHz*, 15KHz, 22KHz*
Output time constants: 0.1s, 0.5s, 1.0s, 3.0s and unfiltered
Automatic gain control and zeroing

*Feature only available whilst using the moorVMS-PC Windows™ software


Digital LCD screen display
40Hz maximum data rate
0-1000 arbitrary perfusion units
USB interface for connection to PC
2 analogue outputs per channel, BNC sockets 0-5v


Flash memory programmable from PC
Output scale adjustment
Filter bandwidth selection


Universal voltage switch-mode power supply range 100-230v at 30VA, 50 to 60 Hz
Dimensions W H D mm
moorVMS-LDF1 235 x 60 x 200
moorVMS-LDF2 235 x 80 x 200
Weight kgs
moorVMS-LDF1 1.4
moorVMS-LDF2 1.5
Mode of operation: continuous.


Temperature 0-45°C
Humidity 0-80% RH
Atmospheric pressure 500-1060hPa
Type of protection against electric shock – Class 1
Degree of protection against electric shock – Type BF
Degree of protection against ingress of liquid – IPXO (not protected)
Degree of protection against flammable anaesthetics – equipment not suitable for use in the presence of flammable anaesthetics

Moor Instruments manufacture a wide range of probes designed to help you assess flow from almost any tissue. We are more than happy to advise on your particular application but hope too that the following general notes are useful.

Skin probes are available with two main fibre configurations, twin or multi-fibre designs. Multi-fibre designs usually contain a ring of up to eight collecting fibres around a central delivery fibre. This provides an averaged signal for a larger tissue area than would otherwise be provided by the conventional twin fibre model.

Skin probes are usually fixed to the skin with a probe holder and double sided adhesive discs, although they can be used in other applications (e.g. bone, visceral measurements) and with other equipment (e.g. Iontophoresis). Please refer to the Accessories and Iontophoresis catalogues. moorVMS-LDF users can specify combined laser Doppler and temperature probes.

The standard length for all probes is 2 metres. Longer lengths can be supplied on request (code PXL). The range of probe holders for these (and other) probes is described in the accessories page.

Needle probes are amongst the most versatile designs. They can be used for surface measurements, inserted into tissue or used for single vessel measurements. The compact design also lends itself to measurements in tissues with restricted access, e.g. teeth, conjunctiva and where micromanipulation is required.

Probes can be fixed in position over tissue with a normal laboratory manipulator by clamping onto the black acetal shank.

Deeper measurements are possible by inserting the probe tip into tissue bulk, for which finer needles are suitable (VP4 and VP4s). The finest needles can be inserted directly into some tissues with the application of gentle pressure: for larger needles it may be necessary to puncture the tissue first with a hypodermic needle.

The use of specific probe holders can extend the application range of needle probes further still. Wet stick probe tips can be used to aid adhesion to moist/ mucosal surfaces. Dental putty can be used to create an individual probe holder for tooth measurement. Angled needle probes can be used to access hind teeth.

Although laser Doppler is not usually advocated for assessment of flow in single vessels, there is a role for the technique in the assessment of flow changes in small individual vessels. Moor manufactures a range of probe holders to aid this measurement.

Endoscopic probes enable internal investigations of blood flow in tissue beds such as colon, bronchus and urethra. The probes are available in a wide range of diameters to fit the biopsy channel of most endoscopes. All are made from a flexible yet tough nylon sleeving.

The finer diameter probes, although generally more delicate, can be used with some naso-gastric tubes: the tip of the n.g. tube is removed to allow an end viewing probe to protrude for measurement.

The standard length for all endoscopic probes is three metres. Longer lengths can be supplied, to a maximum of 4 metres, and are particularly useful for larger animals (e.g. horses).

Low profile designs are either used where access is difficult (e.g. oral mucosa) or to reduce application pressure if the probe is to be covered by bandages. Various designs are available, including the titanium disc probe and the near flat silicon probe.

VP10M100ST & VP10M200ST Master/ single fibre probe system. Master probes are twin fibre designs, acting as a link between the monitor and the single fibre probe. The Master probe connects to the single fibre probe via an optical in-line connector (order code PCP).

This system offers a number of advantages over more conventional probe designs. The benefits include;

1. Small diameter probes (down to 250micron) for minimally invasive measurements.

2. Wide choice of single fibre probes for diverse measurements. Just connect a new probe for a change to muscle, cerebral, gastric, organ or endoscopic (etc.) applications. This represents an economic solution if you intend to sample at a number of different tissue sites with a limited number of LDF channels.

3. Single fibre probes are supplied with re-usable, detachable connectors (order code PCN). Probes can be sterilised easily for re-use or treated as disposable (see P10d, P10k,P10s-TCG). Moor Instruments can also supply the materials for you to construct your own single fibre probes.

4. For longer-term measurements the Master can be disconnected to leave the single fibre in position between measurement periods.