Laser Doppler Monitor


Advanced, laser Doppler blood flow and temperature monitor

  • Laser Doppler Imager is a standard accurate method we now use in our cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion in our laboratory.

    Momoh A. Yakubu, PhD
    Texas Southern University

  • I cannot rate the company or the staff highly enough.

    Jim House, PhD
    University of Portsmouth

  • Moor Instruments have consistently provided excellent help and support for my research.

    Kim Gooding, PhD
    University of Exeter Medical School

  • It goes without saying that the company's imaging technology itself is superb!

    Gourav Banerjee
    Leeds Beckett University

  • I expect to be using Moor Instrument’s technology for many years to come!

    Faisel Khan, PhD
    Ninewells Hospital & Medical School

  • In a nutshell, moorFLPI-2 is the most user-friendly system for studying cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents.

    Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan, MD, PhD
    Emory University School of Medicine

  • We have found Moor equipment to be extremely dependable and innovative.

    Dean L. Kellogg, Jr., MD, Ph.D
    University of Texas Health Science Center

  • We can't recommend Moor instruments highly enough. The technology is at the cutting edge and the support second to none.

    Paul Sumners, PhD
    London South Bank University

The moorVMS-LDF laser Doppler monitor for blood flow and temperature monitoring is a high performance, medical grade module for clinic or laboratory. Use of DSP technology brings you a portable, lightweight module featuring uncompromised specification, quality and reliability at a breakthrough price.

For more demanding research applications, moorVMS-PC supports simultaneous protocol control of pressure cuff, iontophoresis and skin heating modules for reproducible blood flow provocation as well data acquisition. This advanced software also offers standard and custom reports according to your protocol.

The moorVMS-LDF features;

  • Single and dual channel laser Doppler monitoring options.
  • Multi-channel: combine modules for a multichannel system with software support for your ideal configuration. Stacking case design offers a compact footprint for multi-channel users.
  • ‘MemoryChip’ probes: for a wide range of applications. Calibration constants are stored within the probe itself with timed re-calibration reminders. Inbuilt temperature measurement for skin probes.
  • Easy viewing: high contrast, ice white, backlit LCD display.
  • Advanced Windows™ compatible moorVMS-PC software: with extensive analytical features and automatic report generation. Automatic analysis and reporting.
  • Easily connectable: analogue output (0-5V, BNC) and digital (USB) real time data transfer included as standard for connection to data acquisition systems.
  • Medical grade design: for both clinical and research applications.
  • Multilingual training DVD: for continual reference.
  • Reliability assured: industry leading 5 year manufacturers warranty.

Please contact us to discuss your specific application requirements with a Moor product specialist. You are most welcome to see the system in action and evaluate it for yourself at your own facility.

The following products are AVAILABLE TO BUY ONLINE and work with the moorVMS-LDF

This section lists the more common questions our customers have with regards to the moorVMS-LDF. If you have a question you would like answered that does not appear below then please email us. We are happy to help!

Q. Is the quality of the measurement from moorVMS-LDF different to your other models?
A. All our products are designed and built for human clinical/ medical use including the moorVMS-LDF. There are absolutely no compromises in either the high quality of the measurement or the specification of this product. Use of the latest DSP technology allows us to offer this system at a truly breakthrough price.

Q. How is data transferred from the moorVMS-LDF system?
A. Unlike the DRT4 the moorVMS-LDF does not have an internal data memory so you will need to connect the system to a PC, chart recorder or data acquisition system to permanently record the trace. Every moorVMS-LDF will connect to your PC running moorVMS-PC software via the USB port. You can connect numerous moorVMS-LDF monitors to create your multi-channel configuration. Convenient BNC connections are also provided on the rear panel to link straight to your chart recorder or data acquisition system (0 to 5 Volts fully scalable).

Q. How many sites can I measure from simultaneously with the moorVMS-LDF?
A. The moorVMS-LDF offers real flexibility to create multi channel configurations. Monitors can be added to any USB port on your PC and if you have used all your USB port, just use a USB hub to add more. Our PC software will support it.

Q. How often should the probes be calibrated?
A. We have some customers who calibrate daily and others less regularly. The important thing to bear in mind is that the room temperature should be close to the same each time you calibrate. There is a risk of 'over calibration' - excessive calibration throughout the day - which can be counterproductive if there are large temperature swings. This can result in changes in the Brownian motion of the polystyrene microspheres. We would normally recommend to check calibration at least monthly during the course of a scientific investigation. Calibration is also a good indicator of probe condition. A damaged probe will not calibrate!

Q. How can I use moorVMS-LDF with other protocol modules?
A. moorVMS-LDF in conjunction with moorVMS-PC offers the most flexible solution available to integrate your selection of monitor(s), iontophoresis (MIC2), skin heating (moorVMS-HEAT) and Pressure cuff control (moorVMS-PRES). The software acts as a hub to link all the modules together and to streamline automatic protocol control and analysis.

Q. What are MemoryChip probes?
A. MemoryChip probes store their individual calibration information within the connector itself. When you change over probes, or use on different monitors, the correct calibration data is always applied automatically.

Q. Should the skin be cleaned before measurements?
A. Yes - we recommend using an alcohol wipe. Dead, flaky skin can be removed by gentle stripping with sticky tape. This should be done at least 20 minutes before measurements to allow any stimulus effect to subside.

There are now thousands of references that cite Moor Instruments laser Doppler monitoring so it is no longer possible to provide a full, comprehensive list. Below is a small selection of references in the key application areas. If you don’t see your topic covered or have any questions about your intended application, please do not hesitate to contact our application specialists. We would also be happy to include your reference below!

Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI)
Bone / Spinal
Dental / Pulp Vitality Test
Endothelial Function / COVID 19
Flap Monitoring
Intestinal / Gastric Perfusion
Muscle and Exercise
Post Occlusive Reactive Hyperaemia (PORH)
Skin Perfusion Pressure (SPP)
Stroke Model (MCAO) / CBF
Toe Blood Pressure (TBP)

Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI)

American Diabetes Association (2003).
Peripheral arterial disease in people with diabetes.
Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3333-41.

Fay Crawford, Karen Welch, Alina Andras, Francesca M Chappell (2016).
Ankle brachial index for the diagnosis of lower limb peripheral arterial disease.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 14;9(9):CD010680.

Jane H Davies, Joyce Kenkre, E Mark Williams (2014).
Current utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening.
BMC Fam Pract. 2014 Apr 17;15:69.

L Norgren, W R Hiatt, J A Dormandy, M R Nehler, K A Harris, F G R Fowkes, TASC II Working Group (2007).
Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II).
J Vasc Surg. 2007 Jan;45 Suppl S:S5-67.

L Potier, C Abi Khalil, K Mohammedi, R Roussel (2011).
Use and utility of ankle brachial index in patients with diabetes.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Jan;41(1):110-6.

Mei-Yueh Lee, Pi-Jung Hsiao, Jiun-Chi Huang, Wei-Hao Hsu, Szu-Chia Chen, Jer-Ming Chang, Shyi-Jang Shin (2018).
Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated With the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 11;8(1):441.

Sarah Louise Casey, Sean Michael Lanting, Vivienne Helaine Chuter (2020).
The ankle brachial index in people with and without diabetes: intra-tester reliability.
J Foot Ankle Res. 2020 May 12;13(1):21.

Suzanne Hyun, Nketi I. Forbang, Matt A. Allison, Julie O. Denenberg, Michael H. Criqui, and Joachim H. Ix (2014).
Ankle Brachial Index, Toe Brachial Index, and Cardiovascular Mortality in Participants With and Without Diabetes Mellitus.
J Vasc Surg. 2014 Aug; 60(2): 390–395.

Victor Aboyans, Michael H Criqui, Pierre Abraham, Matthew A Allison, Mark A Creager, Curt Diehm, F Gerry R Fowkes, William R Hiatt, Björn Jönsson, Philippe Lacroix, Benôit Marin, Mary M McDermott, Lars Norgren, Reena L Pande, Pierre-Marie Preux, H E Jelle Stoffers, Diane Treat-Jacobson (2012).
Measurement and Interpretation of the Ankle-Brachial Index: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2012 Dec 11;126(24):2890-909.

Yoshiko Watanabe, Hisao Masaki, Yasuhiro Yunoki, Atushi Tabuchi, Ichiro Morita, Satoshi Mohri, Kazuo Tanemoto (2015).
Ankle-Brachial Index, Toe-Brachial Index, and Pulse Volume Recording in Healthy Young Adults.
Ann Vasc Dis. 2015;8(3):227-35.

Bone / Spinal

D E Hinsley, C M Hobbs, P E Watkins (2002).
The role of laser Doppler flowmetry in assessing the viability of bone fragments in an open fracture.
Injury. 2002 Jun;33(5):435-8.

H P Nötzli, K A Siebenrock, A Hempfing, L E Ramseier, R Ganz (2002).
Perfusion of the femoral head during surgical dislocation of the hip. Monitoring by laser Doppler flowmetry.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Mar;84(2):300-4.

Justin P Phillips, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Richard M Langford, Peter J Shortland (2013).
Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements.
J Biomed Opt. 2013 Mar;18(3):037005.

Katsuhiro Yamanaka, Mohamed Eldeiry, Muhammad Aftab, Thomas J Ryan, Gavriel Roda, Xianzhong Meng, Michael J Weyant, Joseph C Cleveland Jr, David A Fullerton, T Brett Reece (2019).
Pretreatment With Diazoxide Attenuates Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Signaling Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 Mar;107(3):733-739.

Katsuhiro Yamanaka, Mohamed Eldeiry, Muhammad Aftab, Thomas J Ryan, Xianzhong Meng, Michael J Weyant, David A Fullerton, Thomas Brett Reece (2019).
Synergetic Induction of NGF With Diazoxide and Erythropoietin Attenuates Spinal Cord Ischemic Injury.
J Surg Res. 2019 Jan;233:124-131.

Morten Bøgehøj, Claus Emmeluth, Søren Overgaard (2007).
Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head.
Acta Orthop. 2007 Feb;78(1):56-62.

Noortje T L Van Duijnhoven, Thomas W J Janssen, Daniel J Green, Christopher T Minson, Maria T E Hopman, Dick H J Thijssen (2009).
Effect of functional electrostimulation on impaired skin vasodilator responses to local heating in spinal cord injury.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Apr;106(4):1065-71.

Xigong Li, Xianfeng Lou, Sanzhong Xu, Quan Wang, Miaoda Shen, Jing Miao (2018).
Knockdown of miR-372 Inhibits Nerve Cell Apoptosis Induced by Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Enhancing Autophagy by Up-regulating Beclin-1.
J Mol Neurosci. 2018 Nov;66(3):437-444.

Dental / Pulp Vitality Test

Chalida N Limjeerajarus, Seang Sonntana, Limothai Pajaree, Chansawang Kansurang, Supaphol Pitt, Thumsing Saowapa, Pavasant Prasit (2019).
Prolonged release of iloprost enhances pulpal blood flow and dentin bridge formation in a rat model of mechanical tooth pulp exposure.
J Oral Sci. 2019 Mar 28;61(1):73-81.

Eugene Chen, Paul V Abbott (2011).
Evaluation of accuracy, reliability, and repeatability of five dental pulp tests.
J Endod. 2011 Dec;37(12):1619-23.

Gastón Meza, Denisse Urrejola, Nicole Saint Jean, Carolina Inostroza, Valentina López, Maroun Khoury, Claudia Brizuela (2019).
Personalized Cell Therapy for Pulpitis Using Autologous Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Leukocyte Platelet-rich Fibrin: A Case Report.
J Endod. 2019 Feb;45(2):144-149.

H Roeykens, R De Moor (2011).
The use of laser Doppler flowmetry in paediatric dentistry.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2011 Apr;12(2):85-9.

Herman J J Roeykens, Ellen Deschepper, Roeland J G De Moor (2016).
Laser Doppler flowmetry: reproducibility, reliability, and diurnal blood flow variations.
Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Aug;31(6):1083-92.

Herman J J Roeykens, Roeland J G De Moor (2018).
Diurnal variations and pulpal status: is there a need for FFT besides LDF?
Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Dec;33(9):1891-1900.

Herman Roeykens, Georges Van Maele, Luc Martens, Roeland De Moor (2002).
A two-probe laser Doppler flowmetry assessment as an exclusive diagnostic device in a long-term follow-up of traumatised teeth: a case report.
Dent Traumatol. 2002 Apr;18(2):86-91.

N P Chandler, T R Pitt Ford, B D Monteith (2010).
Effect of restorations on pulpal blood flow in molars measured by laser Doppler flowmetry.
Int Endod J. 2010 Jan;43(1):41-6.

Nahar Ghouth, Monty S Duggal, Jing Kang, Hani Nazzal (2019).
A Diagnostic Accuracy Study of Laser Doppler Flowmetry for the Assessment of Pulpal Status in Children's Permanent Incisor Teeth.
J Endod. 2019 May;45(5):543-548.

Qian Liao, Wenjun Ye, Junli Yue, Xiaoxi Zhao, Ling Zhang, Lan Zhang, Dingming Huang, Qinghua Zheng (2017).
Self-repaired Process of a Traumatized Maxillary Central Incisor with Pulp Infarct after Horizontal Root Fracture Monitored by Laser Doppler Flowmetry Combined with Tissue Oxygen Monitor.
J Endod. 2017 Jul;43(7):1218-1222.


Mirjam Heimhalt-El Hamriti, Corinna Schreiver, Anja Noerenberg, Julia Scheffler, Ulrike Jacoby, Dieter Haffner, Dagmar-C Fischer (2013).
Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Aug 12;12:115.

Endothelial Function / COVID 19

Andrew T.Del Pozzi, James T.Miller, Gary J.Hodges (2016).
The effect of heating rate on the cutaneous vasomotion responses of forearm and leg skin in humans.
Microvascular Research Volume 105, May 2016, Pages 77-84.

Anthony I Shepherd, Joseph T Costello, Stephen J Bailey, Nicolette Bishop, Alex J Wadley, Steven Young-Min, Mark Gilchrist, Harry Mayes, Danny White, Paul Gorczynski, Zoe L Saynor, Heather Massey, Clare M Eglin (2019).
"Beet" the cold: beetroot juice supplementation improves peripheral blood flow, endothelial function, and anti-inflammatory status in individuals with Raynaud's phenomenon.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019 Nov 1;127(5):1478-1490.

Casey G. Turner, James T. Miller, Jeffrey S. Otis, Matthew J. Hayat, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Brett J. Wong (2020).
Cutaneous sensory nerve‐mediated microvascular vasodilation in normotensive and prehypertensive non‐Hispanic Blacks and Whites.
American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 10.1152/ajpheart.00177.2020, (2020).

Christopher T Minson 1 , Lacy A Holowatz, Brett J Wong, W Larry Kenney, Brad W Wilkins (2002)
Decreased nitric oxide- and axon reflex-mediated cutaneous vasodilation with age during local heating.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Nov;93(5):1644-9.

Jerrold Petrofsky, Faris Alshammari, Iman Akef Khowailed, Sophia Rodrigues, Pooja Potnis, Siddhesh Akerkar, Jinal Shah, Guyeon Chung, Rakhi Save (2013).
The effect of acute administration of vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians.
Med Sci Monit. 2013 Aug 5;19:641-7.

Markos Klonizakis, Ahmad Alkhatib, Geoff Middleton, Mark F Smith (2013).
Mediterranean diet- and exercise-induced improvement in age-dependent vascular activity.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2013 May;124(9):579-87.

Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin (2017).
Role of cyclooxygenase in the vascular response to locally delivered acetylcholine in Caucasian and African descent individuals.
Microvasc Res. 2017 May;111:80-87.

Syed Mudassar Imran Bukhari, Kiu Kwong Yew, Rajasunthari Thambiraja, Sarina Sulong, Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool, and Liza-Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin (2019).
Microvascular endothelial function and primary open angle glaucoma.
Ther Adv Ophthalmol. 2019 Jan-Dec; 11.

Thomas Davies, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Stephen Wythe, Paula Meale, Monty Mythen, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Michael Grocott, Geraldine Clough, Daniel Martin, Xtreme Everest 2 Research Group (2018).
Sustained vasomotor control of skin microcirculation in Sherpas versus altitude-naive lowlanders: Experimental evidence from Xtreme Everest 2.
Exp Physiol. 2018 Nov;103(11):1494-1504.

Yunus A Abdulhameed, Gemma Lancaster, Peter V E McClintock, Aneta Stefanovska (2019).
On the suitability of laser-Doppler flowmetry for capturing microvascular blood flow dynamics from darkly pigmented skin.
Physiol Meas. 2019 Aug 2;40(7):074005.


Casey G Turner, James T Miller, Jeffrey S Otis, Matthew J Hayat, Arshed A Quyyumi, Brett J Wong (2020).
Cutaneous sensory nerve-mediated microvascular vasodilation in normotensive and prehypertensive non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites.
Physiol Rep. 2020 May;8(9):e14437.

Jerrold Petrofsky, Faris Alshammari, Iman Akef Khowailed, Sophia Rodrigues, Pooja Potnis, Siddhesh Akerkar, Jinal Shah, Guyeon Chung, Rakhi Save (2013).
The effect of acute administration of vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians.
Med Sci Monit. 2013 Aug 5;19:641-7.

Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin (2017).
Role of cyclooxygenase in the vascular response to locally delivered acetylcholine in Caucasian and African descent individuals.
Microvasc Res. 2017 May;111:80-87.

Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin (2017).
Role of cyclooxygenase in the vascular responses to extremity cooling in Caucasian and African males.
Exp Physiol. 2017 Jul 1;102(7):854-865.

S Tony Wolf, Nina G Jablonski, Sara B Ferguson, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney (2020).
Four weeks of vitamin D supplementation improves nitric oxide-mediated microvascular function in college-aged African Americans.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2020 Oct 1;319(4):H906-H914.

Thomas Davies, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Stephen Wythe, Paula Meale, Monty Mythen, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Michael Grocott, Geraldine Clough, Daniel Martin, Xtreme Everest 2 Research Group (2018).
Sustained vasomotor control of skin microcirculation in Sherpas versus altitude-naive lowlanders: Experimental evidence from Xtreme Everest 2.
Exp Physiol. 2018 Nov;103(11):1494-1504.

William D Strain, Alun D Hughes, Jamil Mayet, Andrew R Wright, Jaspal Kooner, Nish Chaturvedi, Angela C Shore (2010).
Attenuation of microvascular function in those with cardiovascular disease is similar in patients of Indian Asian and European descent.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2010 Jan 15;10:3.

Yunus A Abdulhameed, Peter V E McClintock, Aneta Stefanovska (2020).
Race-specific differences in the phase coherence between blood flow and oxygenation: A simultaneous NIRS, white light spectroscopy and LDF study.
J Biophotonics. 2020 Apr;13(4):e201960131.

Flap Monitoring

Andrea Figus, Ashfin Mosahebi, Venkat Ramakrishnan (2006).
Microcirculation in DIEP flaps: a study of the haemodynamics using laser Doppler flowmetry and lightguide reflectance spectrophotometry.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59(6):604-12; discussion 613.

Aravashi Ananda Dorai (2006).
Laser Doppler Monitoring of Free Flaps in Reconstructive Microsurgery.
Malays J Med Sci. 2006 Jan; 13(1): 79.

Jeri R Payette, Elicia Kohlenberg, Lorenzo Leonardi, Arone Pabbies, Paul Kerr, Kan-Zhi Liu, Michael G Sowa (2005).
Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Feb;115(2):539-46.

Shanmugam Karthikeyan, Damian R. Griffin, Nicholas Parsons, Thomas M. Lawrence, Chetan S. Modi, Stephen J. Drew, Christopher D. Smith (2015).
Microvascular blood flow in normal and pathologic rotator cuffs.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg. Volume 24, ISSUE 12, P1954-1960, December 01, 2015.

Svein A Landsverk, Per Kvandal, Trygve Kjelstrup, Uros Benko, Alan Bernjak, Aneta Stefanovska, Hebe Kvernmo, Knut A Kirkeboen (2006).
Human skin microcirculation after brachial plexus block evaluated by wavelet transform of the laser Doppler flowmetry signal.
Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep;105(3):478-84.

Tolga Taha Sönmez, Othman Al-Sawaf, Gerald Brandacher, Isabella Kanzler, Nancy Tuchscheerer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Anastasios Kanatas, Matthias Knobe, Athanassios Fragoulis, René Tolba, David Mitchell, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck, Frank Hölzle, Elisa Anamaria Liehn (2013).
A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.
PLoS One. 2013 Jun 20;8(6):e66498.

Tolga Taha Sönmez, Othman Al-Sawaf, Gerald Brandacher, Isabella Kanzler, Nancy Tuchscheerer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Anastasios Kanatas, Matthias Knobe, Athanassios Fragoulis, René Tolba, David Mitchell, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck, Frank Hölzle, Elisa Anamaria Liehn (2013).
A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.
PLoS One . 2013 Jun 20;8(6):e66498.

Xiguang Feng, Yi Chen, Min Zhang, Miaojie Fang, Cuimei Xiao, Junzhu Chen (2020).
Protective effect of citicoline on random flap survival in a rat mode.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Jun;83:106448.


Rebecca Herzog, Adib Zendedel, Leoni Lammerding, Cordian Beyer, Alexander Slowik (2016).
Impact of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on inflammatory and apoptotic microRNA expression after ischemia in a rat model.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Mar;167:126-134.

Intestinal / Gastric Perfusion

A V Emmanuel, M A Kamm (1999).
Laser Doppler measurement of rectal mucosal blood flow.
Gut. 1999 Jul;45(1):64-9.

Darmarajah Veeramootoo, Angela C Shore, Shahjehan A Wajed (2012).
Randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic gastric ischemic conditioning prior to minimally invasive esophagectomy, the LOGIC trial.
Surg Endosc. 2012 Jul;26(7):1822-9.

Jurgen Birnbaum, Edda Klotz, Claudia D Spies, Bjorn Lorenz, Patrick Stuebs, Ortrud Vargas Hein, Matthias Grundling, Dragan Pavlovic, Taras Usichenko, Michael Wendt, Wolfgang J Kox, Christian Lehmann (2006).
Effects of dopexamine on the intestinal microvascular blood flow and leukocyte activation in a sepsis model in rats.
Crit Care. 2006;10(4):R117.

Lei Liu, Jie Cui, Cheng-Jie Song, Jin-Song Bian, Anna Sparatore, Piero Del Soldato, Xin-Yu Wang and Chang-Dong Yan (2012).
H(2)S-Releasing Aspirin Protects against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Injury via Reducing Oxidative Stress.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9): e46301.

Lei Liu, Jie Cui, Cheng-Jie Song, Jin-Song Bian, Anna Sparatore, Piero Del Soldato, Xin-Yu Wang, Chang-Dong Yan (2012).
H(2)S-releasing aspirin protects against aspirin-induced gastric injury via reducing oxidative stress.
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46301.

M A Kamm, C C Jordan, B R Leaker, F B Nicholson, C D R Murray, S Taylor, M Marshall, A Gibbs, E G Carter, A V Emmanuel (2007).
Pharmacological modulation of gut mucosal and large vessel blood flow.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Mar 15;25(6):693-702.

M Rutegård, N Hassmén, O Hemmingsson, M M Haapamäki, P Matthiessen, J Rutegård (2016).
Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer and Visceral Blood Flow: An Explorative Study.
Scand J Surg. 2016 Jun;105(2):78-83.

T H Gould, K Grace, G Thorne, M Thomas (2002).
Effect of thoracic epidural anaesthesia on colonic blood flow.
Br J Anaesth. 2002 Sep;89(3):446-51.

Muscle and Exercise

Angus Lindsay, Alexie A Larson, Mayank Verma, James M Ervasti, Dawn A Lowe (2019).
Isometric resistance training increases strength and alters histopathology of dystrophin-deficient mouse skeletal muscle.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019 Feb 1;126(2):363-375.

Boon-Hua Low, Yue-Der Lin, Bo-Wen Huang, Taipau Chia, Jian-Guo Bau, and Hao-Yu Huang (2020).
Impaired Microvascular Response to Muscle Stretching in Chronic Smokers With Type 2 Diabetes.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020; 8: 602.

Colin Farr, Andrew R Middlebrooke, Neil Armstrong, Alan R Barker, Jon Fulford, David M Mawson, Ali M McManus (2019).
Objectively Measured Aerobic Fitness is Not Related to Vascular Health Outcomes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk In 9-10 Year Old Children.
J Sports Sci Med. 2019 Aug 1;18(3):513-522.

Fabian N Berru, Sarah E Gray, Trace Thome, Ravi A Kumar, Zachary R Salyers, Madeline Coleman, Dennis Le, Kerri O'Malley, Leonardo F Ferreira, Scott A Berceli, Salvatore T Scali, Terence E Ryan (2019).
Chronic kidney disease exacerbates ischemic limb myopathy in mice via altered mitochondrial energetics.
Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 29;9(1):15547.

Geraldine Clough, Andrew Chipperfield, Christopher Byrne, Frits de Mul, Rodney Gush (2009).
Evaluation of a new high power, wide separation laser Doppler probe: potential measurement of deeper tissue blood flow.
Microvasc Res. 2009 Sep;78(2):155-61.

Jian-Guo Bau, Taipau Chia, Yu-Fang Chung, Kun-Hao Chen, Shyi-Kuen Wu (2013).
A novel assessment of flexibility by microcirculatory signals.
Sensors (Basel). 2013 Dec 30;14(1):478-91.

Markos Klonizakis, Ahmad Alkhatib, Geoff Middleton, Mark F Smith (2013).
Mediterranean diet- and exercise-induced improvement in age-dependent vascular activity.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2013 May;124(9):579-87.

Maxime Pellegrin, Karima Bouzourène, Jean-François Aubert, Christelle Bielmann, Rolf Gruetter, Nathalie Rosenblatt-Velin, Carole Poitry-Yamate, Lucia Mazzolai (2020).
Impact of aerobic exercise type on blood flow, muscle energy metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis in experimental lower extremity artery disease.
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 20;10(1):14048.

Ryan D Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, Sarah J Blackwood, Renee M Dwyer, James E Sharman, Graeme Jones, Kathryn A Squibb, Aascha A Brown, Petr Otahal, Meg Boman, Hayder Al-Aubaidy, Dino Premilovac, Christian K Roberts, Samuel Hitchins, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan, Michelle A Keske (2017).
Skeletal Muscle Microvascular-Linked Improvements in Glycemic Control From Resistance Training in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes Care. 2017 Sep;40(9):1256-1263.

Sarah J Blackwood, Renee M Dwyer, Eloise A Bradley, Michelle A Keske, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan (2017).
Determination of Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Flowmotion with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2017 Sep;43(9):2013-2023.

Shigehiko Ogoh, Takuro Washio, Kazuya Suzuki, Keisuke Ikeda, Takaaki Hori, Niels D. Olesen, and Yoshiho Muraoka (2018).
Effect of leg immersion in mild warm carbonated water on skin and muscle blood flow.
Physiol Rep. 2018 Sep; 6(18): e13859.

Post Occlusive Reactive Hyperaemia (PORH)

Alex L Barwick, John W Tessier, Xanne Janse de Jonge, James R Ivers, Vivienne H Chuter (2016).
Peripheral sensory neuropathy is associated with altered postocclusive reactive hyperemia in the diabetic foot.
BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care 2016;4:e000235.

C Høyer, J P D Paludan, S Pavar, J A Biurrun Manresa, L J Petersen (2014).
Reliability of laser Doppler flowmetry curve reading for measurement of toe and ankle pressures: intra- and inter-observer variation.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014 Mar;47(3):311-8.

Christian Høyer, Jes Sandermann, Jens Peder D Paludan, Susanne Pavar, Lars J Petersen (2013).
Diagnostic accuracy of laser Doppler flowmetry versus strain gauge plethysmography for segmental pressure measurement.
J Vasc Surg. 2013 Dec;58(6):1563-70.

Gary Baker, Saul Bloxham, Joe Laden, Rodney Gush (2019).
Vascular endothelial function is improved after active mattress use.
J Wound Care. 2019 Oct 2;28(10):676-682.

M. D. Wiles, E. Dickson, I. K. Moppett (2008).
Transient hyperaemic response to assess vascular reactivity of skin: effect of topical anaesthesia.
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 101, Issue 3, September 2008, Pages 320–323.

Miriam Noble, David Voegeli, Geraldine F Clough (2003).
A comparison of cutaneous vascular responses to transient pressure loading in smokers and nonsmokers.
J Rehabil Res Dev. May-Jun 2003;40(3):283-8.

Santiago Lorenzo and Christopher T Minson (2007).
Human cutaneous reactive hyperaemia: role of BKCa channels and sensory nerves.
J Physiol. 2007 Nov 15; 585(Pt 1): 295–303.

Sean M Lanting, Alex L Barwick, Stephen M Twigg, Nathan A Johnson, Michael K Baker, Simon K Chiu, Ian D Caterson, Vivienne H Chuter (2017).
Post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia of skin microvasculature and foot complications in type 2 diabetes.
J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Aug;31(8):1305-1310.

W David Strain, Nish Chaturvedi, Christopher J Bulpitt, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Angela C Shore (2005).
Albumin excretion rate and cardiovascular risk: could the association be explained by early microvascular dysfunction?
Diabetes. 2005 Jun;54(6):1816-22.

William D Strain, Alun D Hughes, Jamil Mayet, Andrew R Wright, Jaspal Kooner, Nish Chaturvedi, and Angela C Shore (2010).
Attenuation of microvascular function in those with cardiovascular disease is similar in patients of Indian Asian and European descent.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2010; 10: 3.

Skin Perfusion Pressure (SPP)

Chan-Hee Jung, Yoon Young Cho, Dughyun Choi, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chul-Hee Kim, Ji-Oh Mok (2020).
Relationship of Sarcopenia with Microcirculation Measured by Skin Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2020 Sep;35(3):578-586.

F W Tsai, N Tulsyan, D N Jones, N Abdel-Al, J J Castronuovo Jr, S A Carter (2000).
Skin perfusion pressure of the foot is a good substitute for toe pressure in the assessment of limb ischemia.
J Vasc Surg. 2000 Jul;32(1):32-6.

Go Urabe, Kota Yamamoto, Atsuko Onozuka, Tetsuro Miyata, and Hirokazu Nagawa (2009).
Skin Perfusion Pressure is a Useful Tool for Evaluating Outcome of Ischemic Foot Ulcers with Conservative Therapy.
Ann Vasc Dis. 2009; 2(1): 21–26.

J J Castronuovo Jr, H M Adera, J M Smiell, R M Price (1997).
Skin perfusion pressure measurement is valuable in the diagnosis of critical limb ischemia.
J Vasc Surg. 1997 Oct;26(4):629-37.

Kazu Suzuki, Zoe Birnbaum, Ryan Lockhart (2018).
Skin Perfusion Pressure and Wound Closure Time in Lower Extremity Wounds.
J Am Coll Clin Wound Spec. 2018 Oct 9;9(1-3):14-18.

Makoto Utsunomiya, Masato Nakamura, Yoshinori Nagashima, Kaoru Sugi (2014).
Predictive value of skin perfusion pressure after endovascular therapy for wound healing in critical limb ischemia.
J Endovasc Ther. 2014 Oct;21(5):662-70.

Shingo Hatakeyama, Masaaki Saito, Kumiko Ishigaki, Hayato Yamamoto, Akiko Okamoto, Yusuke Ishibashi, Hiromi Murasawa, Kengo Imanishi, Noriko Tokui, Teppei Okamoto, Yuichiro Suzuki, Naoki Sugiyama, Atsushi Imai, Shigemasa Kudo, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Noritaka Kaminura, Hisao Saitoh, Tomihisa Funyu, and Chikara Ohyama (2012).
Skin Perfusion Pressure Is a Prognostic Factor in Hemodialysis Patients.
Int J Nephrology, Volume 2012, Article ID 385274.

Tetsuya Yamada, Takashi Ohta, Hiroyuki Ishibashi, Ikuo Sugimoto, Hirohide Iwata, Masayuki Takahashi, Jun Kawanishi (2008).
Clinical reliability and utility of skin perfusion pressure measurement in ischemic limbs--comparison with other noninvasive diagnostic methods.
J Vasc Surg. 2008 Feb;47(2):318-23.

Tota Kawasaki, Tetsuji Uemura, Kiyomi Matsuo, Kazuyuki Masumoto, Yoshimi Harada, Takahiro Chuman, Tomoyuki Murata (2013).
The effect of different positions on lower limbs skin perfusion pressure.
Indian J Plast Surg. 2013 Sep;46(3):508-12.

Xuanliang Pan, Guoxian Chen, Pan Wu, Chunmao Han, Jon Kee Ho (2018).
Skin perfusion pressure as a predictor of ischemic wound healing potential.
Biomed Rep. 2018 Apr;8(4):330-334.

Yih-Kuen Jan, Fuyuan Liao, Maria A Jones, Laura A Rice, Teresa Tisdell (2013).
Effect of durations of wheelchair tilt-in-space and recline on skin perfusion over the ischial tuberosity in people with spinal cord injury.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):667-72.

Yoriko Tsuji, Terashi Hiroto, Ikuro Kitano, Shinya Tahara, Daisuke Sugiyama (2008).
Importance of skin perfusion pressure in treatment of critical limb ischemia.
Wounds. 2008 Apr;20(4):95-100.

Young Song, Sarah Soh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Kyoung-Un Park, Young-Lan Kwak (2017).
Skin perfusion pressure as an indicator of tissue perfusion in valvular heart surgery: Preliminary results from a prospective, observational study.
PLoS One. 2017 Sep 19;12(9):e0184555.

Stroke Model (MCAO) / CBF

Ali Alawieh, Wenxue Wang, Aarti Narang, Stephen Tomlinson (2016).
Thromboembolic Model of Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Mice.
Injury Models of the Central Nervous System pp 357-372.

Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoob Farbood, Mohammad Badavi, Ata Ghadiri, Mohammad Ghasemi Dehcheshmeh, Esrafil Mansouri, Seyedeh Parisa Navabi (2018).
The protective effect of betulinic acid on microvascular responsivity and protein expression in alzheimer disease induced by cerebral micro-injection of beta-amyloid and streptozotocin.
Microcirculation. 2018 Nov;25(8):e12503.

Anna B Roehl, Norbert Zoremba, Markus Kipp, Johannes Schiefer, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Bleilevens, Nikolaus Kuehn-Velten, Rene Tolba, Rolf Rossaint, Marc Hein (2012).
The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during initial recovery from global transient ischaemia/hypoxia.
BMC Neurol. 2012 Aug 24;12:81.

Antoine Anfray, Antoine Drieu, Vincent Hingot, Yannick Hommet, Mervé Yetim, Marina Rubio, Thomas Deffieux, Mickael Tanter, Cyrille Orset, Denis Vivien (2020).
Circulating tPA contributes to neurovascular coupling by a mechanism involving the endothelial NMDA receptors.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2020 Oct;40(10):2038-2054.

Bo Chen, Yahui Gao, Shunhui Wei, See Wee Low, Gandi Ng, Dejie Yu, Tian Ming Tu, Tuck Wah Soong, Bernd Nilius, Ping Liao (2019).
TRPM4-specific blocking antibody attenuates reperfusion injury in a rat model of stroke.
Pflugers Arch. 2019 Dec;471(11-12):1455-1466.

Frederick A Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Jennifer K Lee, Peter Smielewski, Ken Brady, Dong-Joo Kim, Marek Czosnyka (2018).
Validation of Pressure Reactivity and Pulse Amplitude Indices against the Lower Limit of Autoregulation, Part I: Experimental Intracranial Hypertension.
J Neurotrauma. 2018 Dec 1;35(23):2803-2811.

Hilary A. Seifert, Wenbin Zhu, Arthur A. Vandenbark, Nabil J. Alkayed & Halina Offner (2019).
Sex differences in the therapeutic effects of anti-PDL2 neutralizing antibody on stroke.
Metabolic Brain Disease volume 34, pages 1705–1712(2019).

Jon Dang, Bhimashankar Mitkari, Markus Kipp, Cordian Beyer (2011).
Gonadal steroids prevent cell damage and stimulate behavioral recovery after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male and female rats.
Brain Behav Immun. 2011 May;25(4):715-26.

Kunlin Jin, Lin Xie, Fen Sun, Xiaoou Mao, David A Greenberg (2011).
Corpus callosum and experimental stroke: studies in callosotomized rats and acallosal mice.
Stroke. 2011 Sep;42(9):2584-8.

Li F, Tan J, Zhou F, Hu Z, Yang B (2018).
Heat Shock Protein B8 (HSPB8) Reduces Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury via the Induction of Mitophagy.
Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;48:1492–1504.

Lifeng Zheng, Mei Yu, Rui Lin, Yunxuan Wang, Zhan Zhuo, Ning Cheng, Mengzhen Wang, Yongqiang Tang, Liping Wang & Sheng-Tao Hou (2020).
Rhythmic light flicker rescues hippocampal low gamma and protects ischemic neurons by enhancing presynaptic plasticity
Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 3012 (2020).

Maryam Khombi Shooshtari, Alireza Sarkaki, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Mohammad Badavi, Layasadat Khorsandi, Mohammad Ghasemi Dehcheshmeh, Yaghoob Farbood (2020).
Protective effects of Chrysin against memory impairment, cerebral hyperemia and oxidative stress after cerebral hypoperfusion and reperfusion in rats.
Metab Brain Dis. 2020 Feb;35(2):401-412.

Meaghan A Roy-O'Reilly, Hilda Ahnstedt, Monica S Spychala, Yashasvee Munshi, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Lauren H Sansing, Louise D McCullough (2020).
Aging exacerbates neutrophil pathogenicity in ischemic stroke.
Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jan 12;12(1):436-461.

Nadine Lilla, Christoph Rinne, Judith Weiland, Thomas Linsenmann, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier (2018).
Early Transient Mild Hypothermia Attenuates Neurologic Deficits and Brain Damage After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
World Neurosurg. 2018 Jan;109:e88-e98.

Pan-Ting Zhou, Li-Ping Wang, Mei-Jie Qu, Hui Shen, Hao-Ran Zheng, Li-Dong Deng, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Yu-Yang Wang, Yong-Ting Wang, Yao-Hui Tang, Heng-Li Tian, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang (2019).
Dl-3-N-butylphthalide promotes angiogenesis and upregulates sonic hedgehog expression after cerebral ischemia in rats.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2019 Jun;25(6):748-758.

Tingting He, Wanlu Li, Yaying Song, Zongwei Li, Yaohui Tang, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang (2020).
Sestrin2 regulates microglia polarization through mTOR-mediated autophagic flux to attenuate inflammation during experimental brain ischemia.
J Neuroinflammation . 2020 Nov 5;17(1):329.

Vincent A Dinapoli, Charles L Rosen, Tomoaki Nagamine, Todd Crocco (2006).
Selective MCA occlusion: A precise embolic stroke model.
J Neurosci Methods. 2006 Jun 30;154(1-2):233-8.

Xiuyun Liu, Xiao Hu, Ken M Brady, Raymond Koehler, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Jennifer K Lee (2020).
Comparison of wavelet and correlation indices of cerebral autoregulation in a pediatric swine model of cardiac arrest.
Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 3;10(1):5926.

Toe Blood Pressure (TBP)

Christian Høyer, Annette L Høgh, Jes Sandermann, Helle D Zacho, Lars J Petersen (2019).
Risk factors and haemodynamic variables in patients with low toe-brachial index but normal ankle-brachial index.
Atherosclerosis. 2019 Oct;289:21-26.

E Wahlberg, R Gush (2002).
A new automated toe blood pressure monitor for assessment of limb ischemia.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002 Oct;24(4):304-8.

H I Påhlsson, K Lund, G Jörneskog, R Gush, E Wahlberg (2008).
The validity and reliability of automated and manually measured toe blood pressure in ischemic legs of diabetic patients.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008 Nov;36(5):576-81.

J Apelqvist, J Castenfors, J Larsson, A Stenström, C D Agardh (1989).
Prognostic value of systolic ankle and toe blood pressure levels in outcome of diabetic foot ulcer.
Diabetes Care. 1989 Jun;12(6):373-8.

L Norgren, W R Hiatt, J A Dormandy, M R Nehler, K A Harris, F G R Fowkes, TASC II Working Group (2007).
Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II).
J Vasc Surg. 2007 Jan;45 Suppl S:S5-67.

N Settembre, T Kagayama, P Kauhanen, P Vikatmaa, Y Inoue, M Venermo (2018).
The Influence of Heating on Toe pressure in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.
Scand J Surg. 2018 Mar;107(1):62-67.

Patrick A Stone, Alexis Glomski, Stephanie N Thompson, Elliott Adams (2018).
Toe Pressures are Superior to Duplex Parameters in Predicting Wound Healing following Toe and Foot Amputations.
Ann Vasc Surg. 2018 Jan;46:147-154.

Peta Ellen Tehan, Sean George Sadler, Sean Michael Lanting, Vivienne Helaine Chuter (2018).
How does a short period of exercise effect toe pressures and toe-brachial indices? A cross-sectional exploratory study.
J Foot Ankle Res. 2018 Nov 26;11:63.

Sanjay Misra, Mehdi H Shishehbor, Edwin A Takahashi, Herbert D Aronow, Luke P Brewster, Matthew C Bunte, Esther S H Kim, Jonathan R Lindner, Kathleen Rich (2019).
Perfusion Assessment in Critical Limb Ischemia: Principles for Understanding and the Development of Evidence and Evaluation of Devices: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2019 Sep 17;140(12):e657-e672.

Vivienne Helaine Chuter, Sarah Louise Casey (2015).
Pre-measurement rest time affects magnitude and reliability of toe pressure measurements.
Blood Press. 2015 Jun;24(3):185-8.

Yoshikazu Yonemitsu, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Itoh, Jin Okazaki, Makiko Uchiyama, Kumi Yoshida, Mitsuho Onimaru, Toshihiro Onohara, Hiroyuki Inoguchi, Ryoichi Kyuragi, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Hiroshi Ban, Michiko Tanaka, Makoto Inoue, Tsugumine Shu, Mamoru Hasegawa, Yoichi Nakanishi, Yoshihiko Maehara (2013).
DVC1-0101 to treat peripheral arterial disease: a Phase I/IIa open-label dose-escalation clinical trial.
Mol Ther. 2013 Mar;21(3):707-14.


Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool, Aisyah Syairah Abdul Rahman, Nor Aliza Abd Ghaffar, Nik Mohd Zaki Nik Mahmood, Abd Rahim Wong (2010).
Abnormal microvascular reactivity with hypercholesterolaemia in pregnancy.
Malays J Med Sci. 2010 Oct;17(4):14-9.

Anna E Stanhewicz, Lacy M Alexander (2020).
Local angiotensin-(1-7) administration improves microvascular endothelial function in women who have had preeclampsia.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2020 Jan 1;318(1):R148-R155.

Anna E Stanhewicz, Sandeep Jandu, Lakshmi Santhanam, Lacy M Alexander (2017).
Alterations in endothelin type B receptor contribute to microvascular dysfunction in women who have had preeclampsia.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Nov 23;131(23):2777-2789.

Anna E Stanhewicz, Sandeep Jandu, Lakshmi Santhanam, Lacy M Alexander (2017).
Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity Contributes to Microvascular Dysfunction in Women Who Have Had Preeclampsia.
Hypertension. 2017 Aug;70(2):382-389.

Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Sahamsizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Iman Fatemi, Mohammadreza Rahmani, Elham Hakimizadeh, Jalal Hassanshahi (2020).
The effect of oleuropein on unilateral ureteral obstruction induced-kidney injury in rats: the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Feb;47(2):1371-1379.

Ayat Kaeidi, Zahra Taghipour, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Iman Fatemi, Elham Hakimizadeh, Jalal Hassanshahi (2020).
Ameliorating effect of troxerutin in unilateral ureteral obstruction induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in male rats.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2020 May;393(5):879-888.

Fatemeh Shafie, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Mehdi Shafie Ardestani, Mahshid Panahi, Soheila Adeli, Hedayat Samandari, Ghorbangol Ashabi (2019).
Sorafenib-loaded PAMAM dendrimer attenuates liver fibrosis and its complications in bile-duct-ligated rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Aug;97(8):691-698.

Geraldine F Clough, Andrew J Chipperfield, Marjola Thanaj, Eleonora Scorletti, Philip C Calder, Christopher D Byrne (2020).
Dysregulated Neurovascular Control Underlies Declining Microvascular Functionality in People With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) at Risk of Liver Fibrosis.
Front Physiol. 2020 Jun 3;11:551.

K R Davis, J Ponnampalam, R Hayman, P N Baker, S Arulkumaran, R Donnelly (2001).
Microvascular vasodilator response to acetylcholine is increased in women with pre-eclampsia.
BJOG. 2001 Jun;108(6):610-4.

Malia S. Q. Murphy, Meera Vignarajah, and Graeme N. Smith (2014).
Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre‐eclamptic pregnancy.
Physiol Rep. 2014 Nov; 2(11): e12217.

Peter Aranyi, Zsolt Turoczi, David Garbaisz, Gabor Lotz, Janos Geleji, Viktor Hegedus, Zoltan Rakonczay, Zsolt Balla, Laszlo Harsanyi & Attila Szijarto (2015).
Postconditioning in major vascular surgery: prevention of renal failure.
J Transl Med 13, 21 (2015).

Shintaro Yagi, Benedict Marie Doorschodt, Mamdouh Afify, Uwe Klinge, Eiji Kobayashi, Shinji Uemoto, Rene H Tolba (2011).
Improved preservation and microcirculation with POLYSOL after partial liver transplantation in rats.
J Surg Res. 2011 May 15;167(2):e375-83.

Shun Wang, Xiaoyu Tian, Yijun Li, Rong Xue, Haochen Guan, Meng Lu, Huijun Xu, Zhibin Ye, Sifeng Chen, Meng Xiang (2020).
Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate the Therapeutic Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Acute Kidney Injury.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Mar 26;2020:1609638.

Additional References

H M Gardiner, A Barlas, H Matsui, A Diemert, M J O Taylor, J Preece, F Gordon, S E Greenwald, K Hecher (2010).
Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2012 Jun;3(3):182-9.

Yu Ogawa, Yoshi‐ichiro Kamijo, Shigeki Ikegawa, Shizue Masuki and Hiroshi Nose (2016).
Effects of postural change from supine to head‐up tilt on the skin sympathetic nerve activity component synchronised with the cardiac cycle in warmed men.
J Physiol. 2017 Feb 15; 595(4): 1185–1200.

Moor Instruments are committed to product development. We reserve the right to change the specifications below without notice.


Laser Safety Classification
Class 1 per IEC 60825-1:2014
Class 1 per 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11
Output power 2.5mW max.
Wavelength 785nm ± 10nm
Angular spread of laser light from probe tip 26°
All specifications include cumulative measured uncertainties and expected increases in values after manufacture.


Accuracy: ± 10%, relative to Moor Instruments ‘standard’ moorVMS-LDF
Precision: ± 3% of measurement value
Range: 0-1000 PU

Accuracy: ± 10%
Precision: ± 5% of measurement value
Range: 0-1000AU

Accuracy: ± 10%
Precision: ± 3%
Range: 0-1000AU


Range 5-50°C
Resolution 0.1°C, accuracy ± 0.3°C


Bandwidth: high pass 20Hz
Low pass selectable 3KHz*, 15KHz, 22KHz*
Output time constants: 0.1s, 0.5s, 1.0s, 3.0s and unfiltered
Automatic gain control and zeroing

*Feature only available whilst using the moorVMS-PC Windows™ software


Digital LCD screen display
40Hz maximum data rate
0-1000 arbitrary perfusion units
USB interface for connection to PC
2 analogue outputs per channel, BNC sockets 0-5v


Flash memory programmable from PC
Output scale adjustment
Filter bandwidth selection


Universal voltage switch-mode power supply range 100-230v at 30VA, 50 to 60 Hz
Dimensions W H D mm
moorVMS-LDF1 235 x 60 x 200
moorVMS-LDF2 235 x 80 x 200
Weight kgs
moorVMS-LDF1 1.4
moorVMS-LDF2 1.5
Mode of operation: continuous.


Temperature 0-45°C
Humidity 0-80% RH
Atmospheric pressure 500-1060hPa
Type of protection against electric shock – Class 1
Degree of protection against electric shock – Type BF
Degree of protection against ingress of liquid – IPXO (not protected)
Degree of protection against flammable anaesthetics – equipment not suitable for use in the presence of flammable anaesthetics

Moor Instruments manufacture a wide range of probes designed to help you assess flow from almost any tissue. We are more than happy to advise on your particular application but hope too that the following general notes are useful.

Skin probes are available with two main fibre configurations, twin or multi-fibre designs. Multi-fibre designs usually contain a ring of up to eight collecting fibres around a central delivery fibre. This provides an averaged signal for a larger tissue area than would otherwise be provided by the conventional twin fibre model.

Skin probes are usually fixed to the skin with a probe holder and double sided adhesive discs, although they can be used in other applications (e.g. visceral measurements) and with other equipment (e.g. Iontophoresis). Please refer to the Accessories and Iontophoresis catalogues. moorVMS-LDF users can specify combined laser Doppler and temperature probes.

The standard length for all probes is 2 metres. Longer lengths can be supplied on request (code PXL). The range of probe holders for these (and other) probes is described in the accessories page.

Needle probes are amongst the most versatile designs. They can be used for surface measurements, inserted into tissue or used for single vessel measurements. The compact design also lends itself to measurements in tissues with restricted access, e.g. teeth, conjunctiva and where micromanipulation is required.

Probes can be fixed in position over tissue with a normal laboratory manipulator by clamping onto the black acetal shank.

Deeper measurements are possible by inserting the probe tip into tissue bulk, for which finer needles are suitable (VP4 and VP4s). The finest needles can be inserted directly into some tissues with the application of gentle pressure: for larger needles it may be necessary to puncture the tissue first with a hypodermic needle.

The use of specific probe holders can extend the application range of needle probes further still. Wet stick probe tips can be used to aid adhesion to moist/ mucosal surfaces. Dental putty can be used to create an individual probe holder for tooth measurement. Angled needle probes can be used to access hind teeth.

Although laser Doppler is not usually advocated for assessment of flow in single vessels, there is a role for the technique in the assessment of flow changes in small individual vessels. Moor manufactures a range of probe holders to aid this measurement.

Low profile designs are either used when access is difficult (e.g. oral flaps) or to reduce application pressure when the probe is covered by bandages. Various designs are available, including the titanium disc probe and the near flat silicon probe.

VP10M100ST & VP10M200ST Master/ single fibre probe system. Single fibre probes offer the smallest diameter probe packages of all the probes in our range. Intended for animal use only, they are most commonly used for the MCAO stroke model (ask for our application note!). The single fibre, in contact with the tissue, both sends and receives laser light to and from the tissue. Because the VMS-LDF monitor has two separate optical ports to transmit and receive light, a VP10M Master probes is used to act as a link between the monitor and the single fibre probe. The Master probe connects to the single fibre probe via an optical in-line connector (order code PCP).

This system offers a number of advantages over more conventional probe designs. The benefits include;

  1. Very fine diameter probes (down to 250micron) for minimally invasive measurements (non-human applications only).
  2. Wide choice of single fibre probes tips for a range of experimental tissues. Some probes (P10d for example) use a detachable connector (PCN) to link the single fibre probe to the Master, others have a permanent connection.
  3. Single fibre tips can be trimmed off after each measurement so a fresh tip is available for the next measurement. Once you have used the entire single fibre (typically 1 metre long), bare optical fibre (e.g. POF500) is available in 10 metre lengths as a very economical option (re-use the PCN detachable connector supplied originally). Plastic fibre tips are easily prepared with a sharp scalpel. Stripping and cleaving tools (PST, PCT) are available for glass fibres.
  4. For longer-term measurements the Master can be disconnected to leave the single fibre in position between measurement periods.