Iontophoresis Controller


Transdermal drug delivery by iontophoresis

  • It goes without saying that the company's imaging technology itself is superb!

    Gourav Banerjee
    Leeds Beckett University

  • In a nutshell, moorFLPI-2 is the most user-friendly system for studying cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents.

    Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan, MD, PhD
    Emory University School of Medicine

  • Laser Doppler Imager is a standard accurate method we now use in our cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion in our laboratory.

    Momoh A. Yakubu, PhD
    Texas Southern University

  • Moor Instruments have consistently provided excellent help and support for my research.

    Kim Gooding, PhD
    University of Exeter Medical School

  • I expect to be using Moor Instrument’s technology for many years to come!

    Faisel Khan, PhD
    Ninewells Hospital & Medical School

  • We have found Moor equipment to be extremely dependable and innovative.

    Dean L. Kellogg, Jr., MD, Ph.D
    University of Texas Health Science Center

  • I cannot rate the company or the staff highly enough.

    Jim House, PhD
    University of Portsmouth

  • We can't recommend Moor instruments highly enough. The technology is at the cutting edge and the support second to none.

    Paul Sumners, PhD
    London South Bank University

The moorVMS-ION iontophoresis controller is intended to provide the driving force for a range of clinical research applications that require drugs to be delivered by iontophoresis in order to monitor any associated changes in tissue perfusion.

The moorVMS-ION iontophoresis controller is intended to be used in conjunction with a range of Moor Instruments products, including:

  • Monitors: moorVMS-LDF, moorVMS-OXY
  • Imagers: moorFLPI-2, moorLDI2, moorLDLS2
  • Software: moorVMS-PC

Iontophoresis is a method of delivering ionic drugs into the skin. Normally non-lipophilic drugs, e.g. acetylcholine chloride, would remain on the skin surface and very little would diffuse into the skin. Iontophoresis is performed using an electrically conductive chamber filled with the non-lipophilic drug solution and a conductive pad, placed in contact with the patient’s skin. A small current flows between the chamber and conductive pad, causing the ions of the drug to convey the electrical current as they pass into the skin.

Please note: the moorVMS-ION iontophoresis controller it is not intended to deliver drugs for the treatment of illness or disease.

The following products are AVAILABLE TO BUY ONLINE and work with the moorVMS-ION

There are numerous references where our iontophoresis controllers are cited. Below is a small selection of references in the key application areas. If you don’t see your topic covered or have any questions about your intended application, please do not hesitate to contact our application specialists. We would also be happy to include your reference below!

Clinical Research

Clinical Research

A K Andreassen, L Gullestad, T Holm, S Simonsen, K Kvernebo (1998).
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the skin microcirculation in heart transplant recipients.
Clin Transplant. 1998 Aug;12(4):324-32.

Anthony I Shepherd, Joseph T Costello, Stephen J Bailey, Nicolette Bishop, Alex J Wadley, Steven Young-Min, Mark Gilchrist, Harry Mayes, Danny White, Paul Gorczynski, Zoe L Saynor, Heather Massey, Clare M Eglin (2019).
"Beet" the cold: beetroot juice supplementation improves peripheral blood flow, endothelial function, and anti-inflammatory status in individuals with Raynaud's phenomenon.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019 Nov 1;127(5):1478-1490.

Bridgette L Jones, Gregory Kearns, Kathleen A Neville, Catherine M T Sherwin, Michael M G Spigarelli, J Steven Leeder (2013).
Variability of histamine pharmacodynamic response in children with allergic rhinitis.
J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jul;53(7):731-7.

Dag Olav Dahle, Karsten Midtvedt, Anders Hartmann, Trond Jenssen, Hallvard Holdaas, Geir Mjøen, Torbjørn Leivestad, Anders Asberg (2013).
Endothelial dysfunction is associated with graft loss in renal transplant recipients.
Transplantation. 2013 Mar 15;95(5):733-9.

Deepankar Datta, William R Ferrell, Roger D Sturrock, Sachin T Jadhav, Naveed Sattar (2007).
Inflammatory suppression rapidly attenuates microvascular dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis.
Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jun;192(2):391-5.

Dimitroulas T, Hodson J, Sandoo A, Smith J, Kitas GD. (2017).
Endothelial injury in rheumatoid arthritis: a crosstalk between dimethylarginines and systemic inflammation
Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2017; 19: 32.

E F Willis, G F Clough, M K Church (2004).
Investigation into the mechanisms by which nedocromil sodium, frusemide and bumetanide inhibit the histamine-induced itch and flare response in human skin in vivo.
Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Mar;34(3):450-5.

F Casanova, D D Adingupu, F Adams, K M Gooding, H C Looker, K Aizawa, F Dove, S Elyas, J J F Belch, P E Gates, R C Littleford, M Gilchrist, H M Colhoun, A C Shore, F Khan, W D Strain (2017).
The impact of cardiovascular co-morbidities and duration of diabetes on the association between microvascular function and glycaemic control.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017 Sep 15;16(1):114.

Faisel Khan, Jill J F Belch, Maureen MacLeod, Gary Mires (2005).
Changes in endothelial function precede the clinical disease in women in whom preeclampsia develops.
Hypertension. 2005 Nov;46(5):1123-8.

Heimhalt-El Hamriti M, Schreiver C, Noerenberg A, Scheffler J, Jacoby U, Haffner D, Fischer DC. (2013).
Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2013 Aug 12;12:115. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-115.

Jason M R Gill, Ali Al-Mamari, William R Ferrell, Stephen J Cleland, Chris J Packard, Naveed Sattar, John R Petrie, Muriel J Caslake (2004).
Effects of prior moderate exercise on postprandial metabolism and vascular function in lean and centrally obese men.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Dec 21;44(12):2375-82.

Junette S Mohan, Gregory Y H Lip, Andrew D Blann, David Bareford, Janice M Marshall (2011).
Endothelium-dependent and endothelium independent vasodilatation of the cutaneous circulation in sickle cell disease.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 May;41(5):546-51.

Khan F, George J, Wong K, McSwiggan S, Struthers AD, Belch JJ. (2008).
The association between serum urate levels and arterial stiffness/endothelial function in stroke survivors.
Atherosclerosis. October 2008, Volume 200, Issue 2, Pages 374–379.

Malia S Q Murphy, Meera Vignarajah, Graeme N Smith (2014).
Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre-eclamptic pregnancy.
Physiol Rep. 2014 Nov 26;2(11):e12217.

Murphy MSQ, Vignarajah M, Smith GN. (2014).
Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre‐eclamptic pregnancy
Physiological Reports. 2014 Nov; 2(11): e12217.

P R Pienaar, L K Micklesfield, J M R Gill, A C Shore, K M Gooding, N S Levitt, E V Lambert (2014).
Ethnic differences in microvascular function in apparently healthy South African men and women.
Exp Physiol. 2014 Jul;99(7):985-94.

Paul J Meakin, Bethany M Coull, Zofia Tuharska, Christopher McCaffery, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades, Jane Brown, Kathryn J Griffin, Fiona Platt, Claire H Ozber, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Natallia Makava, Anna Skromna, Alan Prescott, Alison D McNeilly, Moneeza Siddiqui, Colin Na Palmer, Faisel Khan, Michael Lj Ashford (2020).
Elevated circulating amyloid concentrations in obesity and diabetes promote vascular dysfunction.
J Clin Invest. 2020 Aug 3;130(8):4104-4117.

Peter J Connelly, Fiona Adams, Ziad I Tayar, Faisel Khan (2019).
Peripheral vascular responses to acetylcholine as a predictive tool for response to cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease.
BMC Neurol. 2019 May 3;19(1):88.

Turner J, Belch JJ, Khan F. (2008).
Current concepts in assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging and iontophoresis.
Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2008 May;18(4):109-16.


Faisel Khan, David J Newton, Emily C Smyth, Jill J F Belch (2004).
Influence of vehicle resistance on transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in humans.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Sep;97(3):883-7.

Grossmann M, Jamieson MJ, Kellogg DL Jr, Kosiba WA, Pergola PE, Crandall CG, Shepherd AM. (1995).
The Effect of Iontophoresis on the Cutaneous Vasculature: Evidence for Current-Induced Hyperemia.
Microvascular Research. Volume 50, Issue 3, November 1995, Pages 444-452.

Pierre Abraham, Mélissa Bourgeau, Maïte Camo, Anne Humeau-Heurtier, Sylvain Durand, Pascal Rousseau, Guillaume Mahe (2013).
Effect of skin temperature on skin endothelial function assessment.
Microvasc Res. 2013 Jul;88:56-60.

S Kubli, B Waeber, A Dalle-Ave, F Feihl (2000).
Reproducibility of laser Doppler imaging of skin blood flow as a tool to assess endothelial function.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 2000 Nov;36(5):640-8.

Moor Instruments are committed to product development. We reserve the right to change the specifications below without notice.

Output Current

Range: 1 – 250 µA
Accuracy: ± 0.5 µA
Precision: ± 0.1 µA
Step: 0.1 µA (1-10 µA)
1.0 µA (10-250 µA)

Compliance Voltage

27 V ±2V

Current Measurement

Resolution: 0.1 µA
Accuracy: ± 0.5 µA
Precision: ± 0.1 µA

Voltage Measurement

Resolution: 10 mV (<10 V) 100 mV (≥10 V) on front panel display Accuracy: ± 100 mV

Resistance Measurement

Range: 1 k – 20 MΩ
Accuracy: ± 5 % 1k – 20 MΩ, Output Voltage >0.2 V

Countdown Timer

Range: 10 sec – 60 mins
Step: 1 Second (10 sec – 1 minute)
10 Second (1 minute – 60 minute)

Isolated Analogue Output (Current)

Range: 0 – 2.5V
Connector: 50 ΩBNC sockets
Minimum load: 10 kΩ

Isolated Analogue Output (Voltage)

Range: 0 – 2.7V
Connector: 50 ΩBNC sockets
Minimum load: 10 kΩ

Sampling Rate

40Hz (all parameters)


LCD with backlight, 1Hz parameter refresh rate

Operating environment

Indoor: e.g. hospital or laboratory use
Temperature range: 15 – 30 °C
Atmospheric pressure: 80-106 kPa
Humidity: 0-80 %, non-condensing
Maximum Altitude: 2000m

Storage and transportation environment

Temperature range: 5 – 45 °C
Atmospheric pressure: 500 – 106 kPa
Humidity: 0 – 80 %, non-condensing

Power source

AC mains, 100-230 V, 50-60 Hz, 15 VA


235x80x200 mm (WxHxD) nominal


1.4 kg

Mode of operation


Electrical safety classification

Class I
Type BF applied parts

Medical devices classification

Class IIa Active device for diagnosis

Sterilisation method

None, equipment and probes Not intended to be sterilised