Skin Heater Controller


Skin heater module offers flexible and reproducible skin heating protocols for flow/ oxygen response assessments

  • It goes without saying that the company's imaging technology itself is superb!

    Gourav Banerjee
    Leeds Beckett University

  • I expect to be using Moor Instrument’s technology for many years to come!

    Faisel Khan, PhD
    Ninewells Hospital & Medical School

  • We can't recommend Moor instruments highly enough. The technology is at the cutting edge and the support second to none.

    Paul Sumners, PhD
    London South Bank University

  • We have found Moor equipment to be extremely dependable and innovative.

    Dean L. Kellogg, Jr., MD, Ph.D
    University of Texas Health Science Center

  • Laser Doppler Imager is a standard accurate method we now use in our cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion in our laboratory.

    Momoh A. Yakubu, PhD
    Texas Southern University

  • In a nutshell, moorFLPI-2 is the most user-friendly system for studying cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents.

    Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan, MD, PhD
    Emory University School of Medicine

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    Jim House, PhD
    University of Portsmouth

  • Moor Instruments have consistently provided excellent help and support for my research.

    Kim Gooding, PhD
    University of Exeter Medical School

The programmable moorVMS-HEAT skin heater controller provides reproducible heating of skin tissue up to 45ºC to be used with any laser Doppler blood flow monitor, imager or tissue oxygenation monitor. It can also be used as a skin temperature monitor. Assessments include maximal flow response, temperature standardisation. In addition Axon reflex flare response can be performed with the moorVMS-HEAT-HT variant which temporarily allows heating to 47ºC.

The features include;

  • Dual channel: enables simultaneous, independent heating and monitoring of two separate areas.
  • Variable heating rate: independent channel heating rate 0.01ºC – 0.1ºC per second.
  • Stand-alone: manual control enables operation without a separate control unit or computer.
  • Protocol control: to enable fully reproducible procedures in your studies supported by moorVMS-PC Windows™ software.
  • Measurement and analysis software package: automated to aid generation and processing of results.
  • Factory calibrated probes: no calibration necessary for the life time of the probes.
  • Accurate and reproducible: heater range between 20ºC and 45ºC with 0.1ºC increments and a measurement range between 5ºC and 50ºC. Temporary heating to 47ºC offered by the moorVMS-HEAT-HT variant.
  • Multi-channel: combine modules for a multi-channel system with software support for your ideal configuration.
  • Easily connectable: analogue output (0-5V, BNC) and digital (USB) real time data transfer included as standard for connection to data acquisition systems.
  • Reliable: 3 year basic warranty, extends to 5 years with annual servicing (in-built automatic reminder).

The following products are AVAILABLE TO BUY ONLINE and work with the moorVMS-HEAT

This section lists the more common questions our customers have with regards to the moorVMS-HEAT. If you have a question you would like answered that does not appear below then please email us. We are happy to help!

Q. What is the moorVMS-HEAT used for?
A. The moorVMS-HEAT can be used to regulate the blood flow measurement temperature or it can be used to affect reproducible skin temperature changes as a stimulus for blood flow change.

Q. Is the moorVMS-HEAT a stand-alone skin-heating controller?
A. Yes, the moorVMS-HEAT can be used in a stand-alone mode or it can be controlled by moorVMS-PC software. This allows convenient connection of a number of skin heating and iontophoresis modules and full flexibility in the protocol set up.

Q. Can the moorVMS-HEAT be remotely controlled?
A. Yes, the moorVMS-HEAT can be remotely controlled by the moorVMS-PC software, where individual protocols detailing temperature and duration can be programmed.

Q. What is the temperature range of the moorVMS-HEAT?
A. The moorVMS-HEAT has a measurement range of 5-50°C and a heating range of 20-45°C (or ambient to 45°C, if the ambient temperature is greater than 20°C). Important: Ensure the temperature selected is appropriate for the subject to avoid risk of local burns.

Q. Can both channels of the moorVMS-HEAT be set to different temperatures - i.e. controlled independently?
A. Yes, the moorVMS-HEAT probes can be at different temperatures within each time period.

Q. Do you have to have two probes connected to the moorVMS-HEAT for it to work?
A. No, the moorVMS-HEAT will work with only one probe connected.

Q. Do I need to calibrate the moorVMS-HEAT probes?
A. There is no user calibration of the heater probes and new probes are supplied calibrated. We recommend annual factory servicing in order to ensure the system is operating within specification.

Q. When buying new probes for my moorVMS-HEAT, do I have to return the moorVMS-HEAT to calibrate the new probes?
A. No, new probes are calibrated by Moor Instruments without the need of returning the moorVMS-HEAT.

Q. Can I iontophorese and heat at the same time?
A. Yes, use the moorVMS-HEAT VHP2 digit-heating probe in the ION1r Iontophoresis chamber. The moorVMS-PC software allows simultaneous control of both skin heating and iontophoresis protocols.

Q. What optic probes do I use with the moorVMS-HEAT?
A. When using a moorVMS-LDF, you need to use a VP12. For the DRT4 you need to use a DP12-V2 and when using a moorLAB you need to use a MP12-V2.

Q. What adhesive discs do I need to order for my moorVMS-HEAT probes?
A. VHP1 you need to order SHAD.
VHP2 you need to order PAD.
VHP3 you need to order IAD or VHP-FP.

Q. Does the moorVMS-HEAT come with a warranty?
A. Yes, there is a 3-year warranty included with the purchase of a moorVMS-HEAT (the heating probes are covered by a 6 months warranty).

There are numerous references where our skin heaters are cited. The list below is a small selection. Please contact us for reference lists on your chosen subject.

Brunt, V. E., Miner, J. A., Meendering, J. R., Kaplan, P. F., and Minson, C. T., (2012).
17-β estradiol and progesterone independently augment cutaneous thermal hyperemia but not reactive hyperemia.
Microcirculation. 2011 Jul; 18(5): 347–355.

Brunt, V. E., Eymann, T. M., Francisco, M. A., Howard, M. J., and Minson, C. T., (2016).
Passive heat therapy improves cutaneous microvascular function in sedentary humans via improved nitric oxide-dependent dilation.
Journal of Applied Physiology Published 14 July 2016 Vol. no. , DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00424.2016.

Van Duijnhoven, N. T. L., Janssen, T. W. J., Green, D. J., Minson, C. T., Hopman, M. T. E., and Thijssen, D. H. J., (2009).
Effect of functional electrostimulation on impaired skin vasodilator responses to local heating in spinal cord injury.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 106(4), pp.1065–71.

Dupont, J. J., Farquhar, W. B., Townsend, R. R., and Edwards, D. G., (2011).
Ascorbic acid or L-arginine improves cutaneous microvascular function in chronic kidney disease.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 111(6), pp.1561–7.

Harvey, J. C., Roseguini, B. T., Goerger, B., Fallon, E. A., and Wong, B. J., (2016).
Acute thermotherapy prevents impairments in cutaneous microvascular function induced by a high fat meal.
Journal of Diabetes Research. Submission Accepted 5th July 2016.

Heimhalt-El Hamriti, M., Schreiver, C., Noerenberg, A., Scheffler, J., Jacoby, U., Haffner, D., and Fischer, D.C., (2013).
Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovascular diabetology, 12(1), p.115.

Holowatz, L. a, Jennings, J. D., Lang, J. a, and Kenney, W. L., (2009).
Ketorolac alters blood flow during normothermia but not during hyperthermia in middle-aged human skin.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 107(4), pp.1121–7.

Holowatz, L. a, and Kenney, W. L., (2011)a.
Acute localized administration of tetrahydrobiopterin and chronic systemic atorvastatin treatment restore cutaneous microvascular function in hypercholesterolaemic humans.
The Journal of physiology, 589(Pt 19), pp.4787–97.

Holowatz, L. a, and Kenney, W. L., (2009).
Chronic low-dose aspirin therapy attenuates reflex cutaneous vasodilation in middle-aged humans.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 106(2), pp.500–5.

Holowatz, L. a, and Kenney, W. L., (2011)b.
Oral atorvastatin therapy increases nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in humans by decreasing ascorbate-sensitive oxidants.
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 301(3), pp.R763–8.

Holowatz, L. a, and Kenney, W. L., (2007).
Up-regulation of arginase activity contributes to attenuated reflex cutaneous vasodilatation in hypertensive humans.
The Journal of physiology, 581(Pt 2), pp.863–72.

Holowatz, L. a, Santhanam, L., Webb, A., Berkowitz, D. E., and Kenney, W. L., (2011).
Oral atorvastatin therapy restores cutaneous microvascular function by decreasing arginase activity in hypercholesterolaemic humans.
The Journal of physiology, 589(Pt 8), pp.2093–103.

Kuhlenhoelter, A. M., Kim, K., Neff, D., Nie, Y., Blaize, A. N., Wong, B. J., Kuang, S., Stout, J., Song, Q., Gavin, T. P., and Roseguini, B. T., (2016).
Heat therapy promotes the expression of angiogenic regulators in human skeletal muscle.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00134.2016.

Lang, J. a., Holowatz, L. a., and Kenney, W. L., (2009).
Local tetrahydrobiopterin administration augments cutaneous vasoconstriction in aged humans.
The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 15), pp.3967–74.

Nabavi Nouri, M., Ahmed, A., Bril, V., Orszag, A., Ng, E., Nwe, P., and Perkins, B.a., (2012).
Diabetic neuropathy and axon reflex-mediated neurogenic vasodilatation in type 1 diabetes.
PloS one, 7(4), p.e34807.

Petrofsky, J., Alshammari, F., Khowailed, I. A., Rodrigues, S., Potnis, P., Akerkar, S., Shah, J., Chung, G., and Save, R., (2013).
The effect of acute administration of vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 19, pp.641–7.

Wong, B., and Minson, C., (2011).
Altered thermal hyperaemia in human skin by prior desensitization of neurokinin-1 receptors.
Experimental physiology, 96(6), pp.599–609.

Moor Instruments are committed to product development. We reserve the right to change the specifications below without notice.

Measured parameters

Temperature, 2 channels

Temperature measurement

Range: 5 – 50°C

Accuracy 5 - 50°C

VHP1 and VHP2 ± 0.3°C
VHP3 ± 0.5°C


± 0.1°C



Temperature control

Range: 20°C (or ambient) to 45°C

Maximum heater power

5 Watts

Maximum rate of heating

Limited by probe size

Medical Devices Directive classification

Class IIa (Active device for diagnosis)


Universal voltage switch-mode power supply range 100-230v at 30VA, 50 to 60 Hz
Dimensions W H D mm
moorVMS-HEAT 235 x 80 x 200
Weight kgs
moorVMS-HEAT 1.3
Mode of operation: continuous
Operating temperature: 10 – 30°C


Temperature 0 – 45°C
Humidity 0 – 80% RH
Atmospheric pressure 500-1060hPa
Type of protection against electric shock – Class 1
Degree of protection against electric shock – Type BF
Degree of protection against flammable anaesthetics – equipment not suitable for use in the presence of flammable anaesthetics

Moor Instruments manufacture a wide range of probes designed to help you assess flow from almost any tissue. We are more than happy to advise on your particular application but hope too that the following general notes are useful.