The endothelium is the lining of blood vessels of the circulatory system, with a fundamental role in vasodilation. Studies of endothelial dysfunction are widespread and include a number of areas of both clinical and pre-clinical research. Fundamental to such studies are the techniques of laser Doppler monitoring and imaging combined, for example, with pressure cuff challenges, iontophoresis and/ or skin heating to provide reproducible challenges. The most recent advance in the field of iontophoresis and laser Doppler has been the use of laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in place of monitoring (LDF). The advantage of imaging is that blood flow can be imaged and recorded over an area of interest rather than a single point measurement, thus results are both more reliable and show better reproducibility.
|Techniques||Field of study||Reference|
|Iontophoresis||Cardiovascular disease||Frank et al. 2010, George et al. 2009
Jadhav et al. 2007, Khan et al. 2008
|Diabetes||Beer et al. 2008, Franklin et al. 2008|
|Peripheral neuropathy||Brooks et al, 2008|
|Systemic sclerosis||Gunawardena et al 2007a, Murray et al. 2008|
|Dermal microvascular blood flow||Agarwal et al. 2010|
|Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy||Gunawardena et al 2007b|
|Skin heating & Iontophoresis||Vascular reactivity||Vascular reactivity Beed et al, 2009|
|PORH||Endothelial function||Yamamoto-Suganuma & Aso, 2009|
|Endothelial function||Spaan et al, 2010|
|Microvascular function – CVD||Shore et al, 2005|
It is difficult to make a definitive recommendation due to the wide scope of challenges used, coupled with the use of both monitoring and imaging, and the number of suitable imagers available. Systems can be offered to suit a range of budgets though and you are welcome to contact us to discuss further. Extended use of equipment for other research fields might influence the final decision but an ideal investigation lab would include the speckle contrast imager (moorFLPI-2), iontophoresis (MIC2) and skin heating (moorVMS-HEAT) options.
Laser Speckle Contrast Imager
Full-field, video frame rate blood flow imaging
moorVMS-ION - Transdermal drug delivery by iontophoresis
moorVMS-HEAT - Skin heater module offers flexible and reproducible skin heating protocols for flow/ oxygen response assessments
moorVMS-PRES - Automatic pressure cuff control for routine microvascular testing
Contact us to discuss your specific needs and to request your copy of our free Application Note which includes a detailed experimental method and practical suggestions. We also offer no obligation on-site visits so you can test the equipment in your facility.