Transdermal drug delivery by iontophoresis

  • I cannot rate the company or the staff highly enough.

    Jim House, PhD
    University of Portsmouth

  • We can't recommend Moor instruments highly enough. The technology is at the cutting edge and the support second to none.

    Paul Sumners, PhD
    London South Bank University

  • I expect to be using Moor Instrument’s technology for many years to come!

    Faisel Khan, PhD
    Ninewells Hospital & Medical School

  • In a nutshell, moorFLPI-2 is the most user-friendly system for studying cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents.

    Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan, MD, PhD
    Emory University School of Medicine

  • Moor Instruments have consistently provided excellent help and support for my research.

    Kim Gooding, PhD
    University of Exeter Medical School

  • We have found Moor equipment to be extremely dependable and innovative.

    Dean L. Kellogg, Jr., MD, Ph.D
    University of Texas Health Science Center

  • Laser Doppler Imager is a standard accurate method we now use in our cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion in our laboratory.

    Momoh A. Yakubu, PhD
    Texas Southern University

  • It goes without saying that the company's imaging technology itself is superb!

    Gourav Banerjee
    Leeds Beckett University

This system has now been superseded by the moorVMS-ION, for full details please click here.

The MIC2 was designed specifically for use in microvascular flow research, with low current doses, variable delivery periods and the ability to assess electrical skin resistance. A choice of re-usable drug chambers is available, suitable for both laser Doppler imaging and monitoring assessments.

Moor laser Doppler users can also benefit from dedicated software and hardware compatibility to ease the practicalities of drug delivery, blood flow measurement and analysis. The MIC2 can also be used in stand-alone mode to operate alongside any laser Doppler system.

This system has now been superseded by the moorVMS-ION, for full details please click here.

The following products are AVAILABLE TO BUY ONLINE and work with the MIC2

This system has now been superseded by the moorVMS-ION, for full details please click here.

This section lists the more common questions our customers have with regards to the MIC2. If you have a question you would like answered that does not appear below then please email us. We are happy to help!

Q. Can the MIC2 be used in stand alone mode?
A. Yes, the current level and time duration for drug delivery is set easily using the front panel of the MIC2. However, when the system is connected to the moorVMS-PC, DRT4 or moorLDI system enhanced protocols are available allowing a high degree of flexibility in the current control. The DRT4 for example can be programmed for 15 individual periods of variable duration and current delivery. The protocol is 'played' with a single keypress. The moorVMS-PC allows convenient connection of a number of iontophoresis and skin heating modules and full flexibility in the protocol set up.

Q. Why is multi-period control a benefit?
A. It has been shown that responses to certain vaso-active drugs is enhanced when the delivery is spread over 3 or more periods, rather than one individual delivery. It is far better if such a protocol is controlled automatically to ensure reproducibility of the test.

Q. How is the MIC2 powered?
A. The MIC2 is powered by four regular AA batteries.

Q. Is the MIC2 safe in use?
A. Yes. We take patient safety extremely seriously. IRB (USA) and REB (Canada) must be sought before the system can be used in these markets. Please direct any questions to our sales team!

Q. Why does MIC2 offer ultra low current setup?
A. Ultra low current doses are available to avoid the 'Galvanic Effect'. This is a current effect that can cause an increase in tissue blood flow when substances that are non vasoactive (such as water) are delivered. When it is important to avoid this effect we recommend current settings of less than 50 microamps are used - MIC2 will deliver down to 0.1 microamps.

Q. Which drugs are typically iontophoresed?
A. Laser Doppler & Iontophoresis is used for test purposes (not for treatments).

Typical drugs and uses are:

Acetylcholine chloride for assessment of endothelial function (when LD is used at the site of ionto); it is also used for the assessment of peripheral autonomic neuropathy (when LD is used away from the site of ionto to assess the axon reflex flare);

Sodium nitroprusside for the assessment of smooth muscle function;

Histamine as an alternative to the prick test and to test small fibre neuropathy;

Anti-Histamine drugs to test their effect on the flare due to histamine injection (e.g. Nedocromil sodium, frusemide bumetanide).

This system has now been superseded by the moorVMS-ION, for full details please click here.

There are numerous references where our iontophoresis controllers are cited. The list below is a small selection. Please contact us for reference lists on your chosen subject.

Alam, T. a, Seifalian, a M. & Baker, D., 2005.
A review of methods currently used for assessment of in vivo endothelial function.
European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery, 29(3), pp.269-76.

Forst, T. et al., 2005.
Impact of insulin on microvascular blood flow and endothelial cell function in the postprandial state in patients with Type 1 diabetes.
Journal of diabetes and its complications, 19(3), pp.128-32.

Ferrell, W. R., Ramsay, J. E., Brooks, N., Lockhart, J. C., Dickson, S., McNeece, G. M., Greer, I. a, et al. (2002).
Elimination of electrically induced iontophoretic artefacts: implications for non-invasive assessment of peripheral microvascular function.
Journal of vascular research, 39(5), 447-55.

Frank, J. et al., 2009.
Daily consumption of an aqueous green tea extract supplement does not impair liver function or alter cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in healthy men.
Nutrition, (November 2008), pp.58-62.

Franklin, V.L. et al., 2008.
Intensive insulin therapy improves endothelial function and microvascular reactivity in young people with type 1 diabetes.
Diabetologia, 51(2), pp.353-60.

George, T.W. et al., 2009.
Effects of chronic and acute consumption of fruit- and vegetable-puree based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and the response as a result of the eNOS G298T polymorphism.
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 68(2), pp.148-61.

Jadhav, S. et al., 2007.
Reproducibility and repeatability of peripheral microvascular assessment using iontophoresis in conjunction with laser Doppler imaging.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 50(3), pp.343-9.

Jones, B.L. et al., 2009.
Assessment of histamine pharmacodynamics by microvasculature response of histamine using histamine iontophoresis laser Doppler flowimetry.
Journal of clinical pharmacology, 49(5), pp.600-5.

Khan, F. et al., 2008.
The association between serum urate levels and arterial stiffness/endothelial function in stroke survivors.
Atherosclerosis, 200(2), pp.374-9.

Ramsay, J. E., Ferrell, W. R., Greer, I. A., & Sattar, N. (2002).
Factors critical to iontophoretic assessment of vascular reactivity: implications for clinical studies of endothelial dysfunction.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 39(1), 9-17.

Turner, J., Belch, J. J. F., & Khan, F. (2008).
Current concepts in assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging and iontophoresis.
Trends in cardiovascular medicine, 18(4), 109-16.

This system has now been superseded by the moorVMS-ION, for full details please click here.

Moor Instruments are committed to product development. We reserve the right to change the specifications below without notice.


Stand alone mode: 0.1 – 250µA
Analogue remote control mode: 4µA – 250µA
Output current accuracy: Set current ± 0.1µA
Output current step: 0.1µA For RS232 control, 0.1µA (<10µA) 1µA(>10µA) stand alone mode, 1uA For analogue control (i.e. DRT4)
Output voltage (maximum): 27V ± 1V open circuit


Current measurement range: 0 – 250µA
Current measurement resolution: 0.1µA
Current measurement accuracy: ± 0.1µA
Voltage measurement range: 0 – 27V
Voltage measurement resolution: 10mV Analogue output and serial outputs, 10mV (<10V), 100mV (>10V) on front panel display
Voltage measurement accuracy: ± 100mV
Resistance measurement range: 1.2kΩ – 20MΩ
Resistance measurement accuracy: ±5% 1.2kΩ – 20MΩ, output voltage > 0.3V or when high resistance warning is displayed ±2% 2kΩ – 10MΩ, output voltage > 0.5V


Analogue control input: 0-2.5V, 1V = 100µA*, 40mV minimum input for activation of analogue remote control.
Current monitor analogue output: 0-2.5V, 1V = 100µA*
Voltage monitor output: 0-2.7V, 1V = 10V*
Computer interface: RS232*

*External equipment interfaces are electrically isolated from iontophoresis output.


Sampling rate, all parameters 40Hz


Power source: Internal battery
Battery type: 4 x AA Cells (4 x 1.5V)
Battery life (typical): 80 Hours continuous


Standards of conformance: EN60601-1:1990EN60601-1-2:2001
Type of protection against electric shock: Internally powered equipment
Degree of protection against electric shock: Type BF applied part
Medical Devices Directive classification: Class IIa
Degree of protection against flammable anaesthetics: Not Protected.
Degree of protection against ingress of liquid: Not protected, IPX0
Mode of operation: Continuous


Operating temperature range for specified accuracy: 15 – 30ºC


Temperature: 0 – 45ºC
Humidity: 0 – 80% RH (excluding condensation)


Dimensions 70 x 150 x 140 mm
Weight 0.55kg Including batteries